Knowledge Resource - Research Articles

Migrant Workers in the Coal Mines of India: Precarity, Resilience and the Pandemic

Suravee Nayak
This paper explores the current precarious employment situations and resiliency of migrant workers in India who have experienced life under several coal mining regimes. The author makes the case that the labouring lives of migrant workers from marginalised communities have been hidden in a "shadow economy" of coal extraction through subcontracting and labour recruitment by local contractors working with state-owned coal companies, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the Talcher coalfields of Odisha.

Understanding Labour through the Lens of Intersectionality: A Case of Mining Labour in Odisha

Suravee Nayak
There have been few attempts to address the power dynamics that emerge from the junction of social structures like class, caste, gender, and ethnicity and shape everyday labour experiences. This essay underlines the need for an intersectional approach to the study of labour and how such a critical lens can be used through interdisciplinary work, where political economics provides the ideal environment. I make an attempt to demonstrate how the concept of "intersectionality" improves our comprehension of various working situations by using the example of coal mining labour in Odisha.

A “do or die” agitation against coal pollution in Odisha

Meena Menon
There has been no relief for the villagers who live close to the Kulda opencast mine in Sundargarh district of Odisha for more than ten years despite numerous protests and legal actions. The locals ultimately began a "do or die" agitation in January 2021, which is still going strong despite the local government's harsh measures against them. The project's operator, The Mahanadi Coalfields Limited, has assured the community that the concerns raised by the community will be addressed over the next months.

Black paddy, black lungs: How coal mining has wrought havoc in Odisha’s Sundergarh

Charudutta Panigrahi
Odisha's Sundergarh is known as a "dark land." No, the earth is not black. The region is a coal mining area, and the activity has severely harmed the health and way of life of the locals, primarily indigenous groups like the Hill Khadia, Bhuyan, and Gonds. The Sundergarh district's Hemagir block is engulfed in poisonous black coal dust. This is due to the 3,500 trucks that transport coal from surrounding open cast mines everyday via 45 villages. Coal mining has negative health effects that are severe. It causes a number of lung illnesses, including as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coal workers'

Adivasi women from mining-affected forests say “no” to coal

Without their permission, coal mines have sprung up all around Adivasi or Indigenous communities in Chhattisgarh state of India since the early 1990s, hurting their way of life, connection to their forests, and health. Local human rights advocate Savita Rath, a member of the GAGGA network, works closely with women in mining-affected villages to build their capacity, safeguard their natural resources, interact with the media, and refuse to allow mining on their property. Savita and local Adivasi women have led peaceful annual rallies encompassing hundreds of villages in Raigarh since 2008 to defend their lan

119 DMF projects for mining-hit gram panchayats get green signal

The Sundargarh administration authorised 119 development projects for five gramme panchayats (GPs) in Hemgir block affected by coal mining on Thursday amid allegations of insufficient District Mineral Foundation (DMF) budget spending in mining-stricken regions.

Moving away from coal: Livelihoods of Odisha's mine workers need to be protected

Charudutta Panigrahi
Domestic violence incidents have grown as a result of joblessness and the financial strain of supporting families, with household earnings having decreased by more than half since the mining ban. The governmental decisions to limit mining have had the greatest negative effects on women and children. In Odisha, there is something akin to a $34 million green climate fund. For Just Transition, a bigger pool is required.

Coal mining in Odisha: An analysis of impacts on agricultural production and human health

Padmanabha Hota, Bhagirath Behera
In one of the most significant mining locations in the Indian state of Odisha, this study evaluates the costs of coal mining on agricultural and human health. The study is based on household-level data obtained from two control (unpolluted) villages in western Odisha's Ib Valley region and four mining-related (polluted) villages. The findings show that the mining villages' average yield per acre is considerably lower than that of the control villages. Males are less prone than females to experience respiratory disease. Furthermore, respiratory diseases are less common in households with higher literacy rate

Ignored and invisible: The burden of mining on women

Mayank Aggarwal
While the loss of land and livelihood is a more frequently discussed effect of mining, local women also experience an invisible impact, including social structures being disrupted, the burden of earning additional income, long-term mental health issues, and a change from being independent cultivators to being dependent on others for survival. According to specialists and organisations active throughout India, incidences of sexual assault against women and human trafficking are increasing wherever mining operations are taking place. Women had job restrictions in the mining industry until recently. Contrary t

Women, Energy And Empowerment

Jaideep Mukherji
When women and girls have access to affordable, dependable energy, unpaid work is less demanding and time-consuming, allowing them to pursue chances for education, earning an income, volunteering, or pleasure. Furthermore, reputable studies have connected renewable energy availability to increased odds of girls finishing their elementary school, higher wages for women, and even a decline in gender-based violence. According to a World Bank paper, household electrification in rural India increased women's non-farm self-employment significantly, albeit somewhat, and had a beneficial impact on girls' school att

Just transition: An essential pathway to achieving gender equality and social justice | UNFCCC

The paper aims to assist Parties, Non-Party stakeholders, and UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies in clarifying how a just transition is critical to making climate action in the workplace gender-responsive. It emphasises the gendered dimension of the threats faced in the workplace as a result of the effects of climate change as well as climate policies that do not prioritise decent work, which is defined as "productive work [for women and men] in conditions of freedom, equity, security, and human dignity."

People living near mining activities at increased risk of diseases, says study

Mayank Aggarwal, Sahana Ghosh
According to a government study, mining activities in Chhattisgarh's coal-rich Tamnar area have put the local population, primarily tribal people, at an increased risk of acute respiratory diseases and tuberculosis. According to the study, the disease burden rate for tuberculosis in Tamnar is nearly double the national rate and nearly triple the state rate, highlighting the negative impact of mining. Experts believe a similar story is playing out in all resource-rich areas of India, where local people are suffering due to a lack of proper checks and balances on mining activities.

As India looks to shift to renewables, Jharkhand's coal mine workers fear loss of jobs and social security

Manish Kumar
Jharkhand has India's largest coal reserves, with approximately 300,000 people directly dependent on mining for a living. As the debate over Just Transition takes centre stage, coal miners are concerned about pensions, healthcare, water, power, housing, and other amenities that may be jeopardised. Workers, unions, and coal sector experts believe that a planned energy transition could ensure justice for those who rely on coal mining directly or indirectly.

District Mineral Foundation Funds: Evaluating the Performance

Rajesh Chaddha, Ishita Kapoor , CSEP
The District Mineral Foundation Funds (DMF) programme was launched by the government in 2015 as a benefit-sharing programme with the communities impacted by mining. The mining corporations would pay 30% of the royalty amount for leases awarded prior to 2015 and 10% for leases granted post-2015 via the auction procedure under the DMF scheme. The Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana is connected to independent, non-profit DMF funds (PMKKKY). It carries out a number of welfare initiatives for the environment and communities impacted by mining. The DMF funding should be used for high-priority areas to th

Unheard and Unseen: Mining Women in British India

Urvi Khaitan , Social History Society, UK
The lives of mining women in colonial India were marked by multiple marginalizations: as subjects, Adivasi or lower caste women, illiterate and extremely underpaid labourers working in isolated rural areas, and engaging in a profession that literally made them invisible by putting them underground. In this sense, they are women beneath the surface, both literally and figuratively. The nature of mining women's participation in coal mining in colonial India is described in this article.

Women beneath the Surface: Coal and the Colonial State in India during the Second World War

Urvi Khaitan
In British India, a six-year ban on women working underground was lifted in 1943 as a result of a quickly intensifying Allied coal crisis. Between August 1943 and February 1946, more than 70,000 low-caste and adivasi (indigenous) women saved the monthly loss of 385,000 tonnes of coal by maintaining output levels and fighting the war's-induced Bengal Famine. Their employment aroused enormous indignation from the general public, the press, and parliaments, leading for the first time to a transnational discourse on Indian women labourers. While this was going on, the desperate colonial authority threatened min

From Gin Girls to Scavengers: Women in Raniganj Collieries

Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt
Women from lower caste and adivasi populations were initially employed by the coal mining business in various production phases. As long as technology remained labor-intensive and collieries remained tiny and surface-bound, their position remained crucial. Women's participation decreased as the sector grew and became more mechanised. This paper describes how the work of resource extraction becomes gendered, the increasing marginalisation of women, their alienation from access to environmental resources, and their transformation into illegitimate and invisible beings. It is based on research conducted in the

How to avoid unjust energy transitions: insights from the Ruhr region

Anmol Arora
This study outlines the two phases of transitions from coal in Germany with respective historical background. The case study of Ruhr is taken as a vantage point to present the implementation of legislations and policies reflecting ideals of just transitions. It shows the positive, and negative consequences of Ruhr’s transition away from coal.

Closing the enforcement gap: Groundtruthing of environmental violations in Sundargarh, Odisha

This report highlights the gaps between existing policies, and their implementation in the Sundargarh region. Case studies are presented along with information of legislation and policies violated representing group-reality. The report formulates needs of the community linking the issues faced with existing mechanisms to provide solutions.

We never imagined that coal will disappear one day!

Joshi S , TERI , TERI , 23 May 2021
The article explores the various dimensions that inform a just transition and the complexities involved in moving away from coal through a case study of Betul which has seen a spate of coal mine closures, due to mineral exhaustion.A case study by TERI, on the impact of the closure of coal mines in Betul, a district in Madhya Pradesh with a mining history of 150 years, sheds light on these issues and the growing need to recognize 'just transition' when moving away from coal. The study observed that by 2030, 46% of the workforce strength of 2019 that is employed in mining in Betul, will retire

Assessing Vulnerability from Coal Dependence and Need for a Just Transition

Bhattacharjya, S., Gupta, R., Mini, G., Chaudhury, S., Juneja, M., Sharma, K , TERI , TERI , 23 Jun 2021
Since the earliest times when coal was mined, it has played a central role in the regional and local economies. It induced growth around its milieu, be it revenue receipt of the state, urbanization, governance institutions, infrastructural development, amongst others. Hence coal has not just contributed in economic growth, but many of thedevelopment objectives could not have been achieved without the contribution of (coal-based) fossil fuels. Industrialization has primarily driven the manufacturing sector and created jobs and value added along the supply chains of material goods.

Harnessing opportunities for a Just Transition in India’

Bhattacharjya, S, Gupta R, Mini G, Chaudhury S, Juneja M, Sharma K , TERI , TERI , 23 Jun 2021
India’s need for clean and affordable energy is extremely critical for supporting economic activities and for addressing numerous developmental challenges faced by the country. The earlier paper had undertaken a deep investigation of the linkages that surround the Indian coal economy and the possible economic, societal and cultural implications particularly in mining rich states as we may witness phasing out coal. The aspect of ‘Just Transition’ and it’s concomitance with the energy transition in India becomes imperative.

Coal transition in India

Spencer T, Pachouri R, Renjith G,i Vohra S , TERI 10 Dec 2018
India is the second most populous country in the world with 1.3 billion people in 2017, and its population is projected to increase to 1.5 billion by 2030. The Indian economy is one of the fastest growing major economies of the world. Over the last seven years the GDP growth rate has averaged 7.3%, and is projected to be in the order of 7.9% over the coming five years. India is still a lowi ncome country with high levels of material deprivation for large shares of its population.

Enabling a Rapid and Just Transition Away from Coal in China

He G, Lin J, Zhang Y et al. , Elsevier Inc. , One Earth 3( 2): 187-194p. , 31 Dec 2019
As the world's largest coal producer and consumer, China's transition from coal to cleaner energy sources is critical for achieving global decarbonization. Increasing regulations on air pollution and carbon emissions and decreasing costs of renewables drive China's transition away from coal; however, this transition also has implications for employment and social justice. Here, we assess China's current coal-transition policies, their barriers, and the potential for an accelerated transition, as well as the associated environmental, human health, and employment and social justice issues that may arise from the tr

Comparing Coal Phase-out Pathways: The United Kingdom’s and Germany’s Diverging Transitions

Brauers H, Oei P-Y, Walk P , Elsevier B.V. , Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 37 (2020) 238–253p. , 30 Sep 2020
Political decisions and trends regarding coal use for electricity generation developed differently in the UK and Germany, despite being subject to relatively similar climate protection targets and general political and economic conditions. The UK agreed on a coal phase-out by 2024. In Germany, a law schedules a coal phase-out by 2038 at the latest. This paper investigates reasons for the different developments and aims to identify main hurdles and drivers of coal phase-outs by using the Triple Embeddedness Framework. The comparative case study approach reveals that policy outcomes regarding coal consumption are d

Just Transition in Coal: A Perspective from Jharkhand

Bhushan C, Banerjee S, Agarwal S , Sameeksha Trust (India) , Economic & Political Weekly 56(29) , 16 Jul 2021
The article discusses why it is an imperative for India to begin deliberation on a just transition from coal in light of some of the compelling factors. It then evaluates what a just transition in India might entail building on an on-ground study of a coal district in Jharkhand, one of India’s top coal mining states. And finally, it outlines the planning and policy considerations that will be necessary to support a just transition.

The Sociopolitical Dynamics of Coal Transition in India 

Janardhanan N, Tamura K , SAGE Publishing , International Studies 57(2): 171-185p. , 26 Apr 2020
Energy transition has been gaining significant policy attention in India, especially in the backdrop of the concerns about growing emissions from fossil fuels and the need for cleaner energy services. However, this has been one of the strategic dilemmas for the country. On the one hand, the increasing demand for fossil fuels is prompting critical policy actions to minimize the energy-related emissions and reduce the dependency on the same. On the other hand, the national economic targets that demand high growth have been pivotal in pushing the energy demand growth and have also been unable to shift away from the

Review of Transition Paths for Coal-fired Power Plants

Song F, Mehedi H, Liang C. et al. , Global Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organization. Pr , Global Energy Interconnection, 4(4): 354-370p. , 24 Aug 2021
The energy sector has an essential role in limiting the global average temperature increase to below 2 °C. Redirecting and advancing technological progress contribute to carbon-free transition solutions. Energy transition is currently one of the most debated issues in the world. This paper reviews and summarizes the current policy projections and their assumptions organized by some major countries in the energy sector, particularly in the coal sector, and provides a detailed discussion on specific and significant socio-technical pathways taken by countries to achieve zero-carbon targets

Transition to Clean Coal Technologies in India

Patil AC , Elsevier Inc. , Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 27: 1731-1736p. , 31 Dec 2008
India has the third largest proven reserves of coal in the world and it is obvious that coal will play a major role in its future development. It is well documented that coal is not an environmentally friendly fuel, unless it is utilized in cooperation with clean coal technologies. This paper uses the Transition Management approach to devise a framework for the transition towards clean coal technologies in India. The concept of Transition Management is firmly rooted in the traditions of system thinking that highlights the co-evolution of the socio-technical systems.

The Future of Coal in a Carbon-Constrained Climate

Jakob M, Steckel JC, Jotzo F, et al. , Springer Nature , Nature Climate Change, 10(8): 704-707 , 26 Jul 2020
Phasing out coal requires expanding the notion of a ‘just transition’ and a roadmap that specifies the sequence of coal plant retirement, the appropriate policy instruments as well as ways to include key stakeholders in the process.

India’s New Coal Geography: Coastal Transformations, Imported Fuel and State-Business Collaboration in the Transition to More Fossil Fuel Energy

Oskarsson P, Nielsen KB, Lahiri-Dutt K, Roy B , ELsevier Ltd. T , Energy Research & Social Science, 73, 101903: 1-10p. , 28 Feb 2021
The advance of renewable energy around the world has kindled hopes that coal-based energy is on the way out. Recent data, however, make it clear that growing coal consumption in India coupled with its continued use in China keeps coal-based energy at 40 percent of the world’s heat and power generation. To address the consolidation of coal-based power in India, this article analyses an energy transition to, rather than away from, carbon-intensive energy over the past two decades. We term this transition India’s new coal geography; the new coal geography comprises new ports and thermal power plants run

Accelerating the Coal Transition

Chattopadhyay D, Bazilian MD, Handler B, Govindarajalu C , Elsevier Inc. , Electricity Journal, 34(2), 106906 , 31 Dec 2020
The cost of wind, solar, and most recently battery storage has fallen dramatically over the last decade, providing the economic rationale for their widespread adoption to help mitigate climate change. This, coupled with the low cost of natural gas, has provided a key challenge in the power sector: how to economically and equitably decommission ∼2000 GW of installed coal capacity? Although a significant part of the existing coal capacity is older, inefficient, and unprofitable, there are complex technical, social and economic challenges that remain. This Comment provides a general framework for the key techn

Coal Transitions—Part 1: A Systematic Map and Review of Case Study Learnings from Regional, National, and Local Coal Phase-Out Experiences

Diluiso F, Walk P, Manych Net al. , IOP Publishing , Environmental Research Letters16, 113003: 1-47 p , 20 Oct 2021
A rapid coal phase-out is needed to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement, but is hindered by serious challenges ranging from vested interests to the risks of social disruption. To understand how to organize a global coal phase-out, it is crucial to go beyond cost-effective climate mitigation scenarios and learn from the experience of previous coal transitions. Despite the relevance of the topic, evidence remains fragmented throughout different research fields, and not easily accessible. To address this gap, this paper provides a systematic map and comprehensive review of the literature on historical coal transit

Knowledge Resource - Reports


Apoorva Singh, Arpita Victor , TERI Press 11 Sep 2023
Coal continues to remain the mainstay of India’s energy portfolio mix. The climate change considerations and the increasing competitiveness of cleaner sources of energy are likely to increase the momentum of the transition towards non-fossil fuel-based sources. According to an estimate, this move would impact approximately 13 million people who are dependent on coal either directly or indirectly for a livelihood. Women form only 6.7% of the coal workforce according to figures from Coal India Limited (CIL), but this number only includes women who have regular employment with the company. Approximately

From coal to renewables in Mpumalanga

This report is based on a distinctive, previously unreleased, confidential set of employee data for coal mines and Eskom that was provided by Eskom and the Mining Quality Authority (MQA). The supplied data sets link gender, educational attainment, and years of service, allowing analysis of skill sets and gender balance in the coal industry as well as evaluation of the potential for talent transfer to the renewable energy sector.

Gender equality must be a central component of a just transition: Submission to the UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights — GI-ESCR

The Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
In addition to highlighting some of the critical factors that must be taken into account when switching from fossil fuels to renewable energy, this paper focuses on the connections between gender, poverty, and sustainable energy and examines how these connections affect gender equality in particular.

Five R’s: A cross-sectoral landscape of Just Transition in India

Chandra Bhushan and Srestha Banerjee , iFOREST
In India, a just transition will necessitate policy and planning for five key elements: restructuring of the economy and industries; repurposing of land and infrastructure; reskilling existing and training new workers; revenue substitution and investments in just transition; and responsible social and environmental practises. To ensure targeted interventions and just socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, all of these must be considered appropriately in a sectoral and region-specific manner.

Beyond coal: Just transition in india’s coal districts

Bottom-up engagement and a coalition of various stakeholders, including policymakers, public representatives, administrators, industry, unions, and the local community, will be required for just transition planning. A top-down approach is unlikely to be successful. A transition of this magnitude will necessitate the cooperation of all levels of government—the federal, state, and local—in order to develop and implement Just Transition policies and plans, as well as mobilise financial resources.

Gender, labour and a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all

Rishabh Kumar Dhir , ILO
A global shift to a low-carbon and sustainable economy presents several opportunities for achieving gender equality in the workplace, which is critical for achieving the SDGs and the Paris Agreement. This publication demonstrates how a just transition combined with inclusive climate action can play a significant role in changing gender norms and advancing gender equality, all while ensuring women have the opportunity to participate as actors in combating climate change, building a green economy, and creating green jobs.

DISCUSSION PAPER Gender Equality & Just Transition

When we speak of a just transition away from fossil fuels, we must challenge new industries to transition away from prevailing power structures and a sexually disaggregated labour force, as well as the role of women's unpaid care work, particularly in developing countries, and women's informal work, both of which subsidise our current economic systems and are financially unrecognised or undervalued. Gender Just Solutions are bottom-up initiatives that promote equal access to benefits, do not burden women, involve multiple benefits, and centre local decision making and the role of women within it.

Defining and Framing Just transition for india

Srestha Banerjee , iFOREST
This discussion paper seeks to define and frame just transition in the context of India. To that end, the paper examines some of the key definitions and conceptual frameworks of just transition, as well as policy frameworks developed by some of the major fossil fuel-dependent countries. Based on the review, and taking into account the socioeconomic and environmental complexities of India's fossil fuel regions, the employees, and the political economy backdrop, the paper proposes how a just transition can be defined, as well as an appropriate approach for framing it in a policy context, while also considerin

Guidelines for a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all

The International Labour Organization's (ILO) Guidelines for a Just Transition to Environmentally Sustainable Economies and Societies for All provide an important pathway for ensuring gender equality and inclusiveness in a world of work disrupted by climate change impacts and climate mitigation actions that do not include pathways for decent work outcomes. They offer a policy framework as well as a practical tool to help countries manage the transition to a low-carbon economy in a gender-transformative way. They also provide a framework for leveraging women's leadership and power as change agents in develop

Managing Coal Mine Closure: Achieving a Just Transition for All

World Bank
This brief report compiles key takeaways from the World Bank's assistance to governments, businesses, employees, and communities on the closure of coal mines over the past two decades. To develop a summary of the essential factors to take into account when planning and implementing coal mine closure initiatives, this internal experience was further strengthened by an examination of other global experiences. The World Bank is still offering assistance with coal mine closure that is supported by real-world knowledge, cutting-edge expertise, and priceless lessons that are essential for a just transition for al

Women in the coal sector: from barriers to entry to challenges in the aftermath of mine ‎closure ‎

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
The fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goal 5, "Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls," hinges on a gender-sensitive just transition policy. Women and young girls might frequently encounter higher degrees of social or personal safety difficulties, as well as educational and health disadvantages, when organisations don't have the proper plans in place. Planning for mine closure and transitions in a way that empowers and benefits everyone in the community requires the use of innovative thinking to create social value into the future.


Swati Joshi , CarbonCopy
While women are grossly underrepresented in India’s workforce, they are overrepresented in the informal sector even among coal mining labour. Instead of rehashing the process when coal is phased out, Just Transition can offer a forum to discuss gender equity within the context of the impending transition to low-carbon development. Despite having the highest stakes and being most impacted in terms of social issues, the environment, and health, women are given little consideration. Investing in the sectors essential for gender parity — health, education, and social security — is one of the i


Matthew Webb, Paola Parra , Climate Analytics
This briefing paper notes the high reliability of Japan on coal, despite global climate policies. The plans to diversify energy production sources of Japan’s government are presented, along with consequences of continuing with coal. A case is made for Japan to start considering just transition policies and processes.

Just Transition and Informal Workers in Coal Regions in India

Srestha Banerjee , iFOREST
This is a working paper taking on the widely unexplored sector of coal mining in India, the informal sector. Since transition away from coal often only brings mine workers under the purview of policies and legislations, the informal workers are abandoned along with mines post closure. Expansion on the understanding of informal workers is represented with certain categorization. The lack of data is the biggest issue for this sector, however this paper provides helpful insights to understand the issue.

When Land is Lost Do We Eat Coal?

Amnesty International India
This report presents the case studies of three states Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha with a background of legislations on coal, forest, and tribal rights. Coal India Limited, and its subsidiaries functioning is analyzed thoroughly to reflect ground reality, making the case for a just transition. International commitments are also highlighted, along with recommendations to make the most effective use of existing framework to resolve human rights violations linked to coal mining.

Assessment of Environmental Impact due to Mining Activities and its Mitigation in Coal India Limited and its Subsidiaries

CAG, India
The case of just transition is formulated on the short comings of the existing practices, along with opportunities to turn the situation around and prospective solutions. This government report mentions the procedures of environment management system, water and air pollution control measures, land management and rehabilitation practices for mine fire cases, along with performance of CIL and its subsidiaries in the country.

Covid-19 and Just Transition in India’s Coal Mining Sector

Johannes Urpelainen, Setu Pelz , Indo-German Energy Forum
The report attempts to highlight the short-comings of investing in the coal and thermal power sector in long-term scenario, while acknowledging the importance of coal in the country. The issue is represented as an opportunity for decent job creation via just transition policies and processes. It mentions how existing policies can be utilized to start the just transition process.

District wise skill gap study for the State of Jharkhand

This report gives an overview of Jharkhand’s demography, educational and training institutions, and an overall economic profile. Policies attempting to promote certain sectors are mentioned for each district given their geographical, demographic, and economic contexts. The gaps for every district are highlighted with prospective solutions.

South African Coal Sector Report

South Africa’s electricity comes from coal, also being a major exporter of coal South Africa has started process of transitioning away from coal. This report gives an informative, yet brief review of South Africa’s coal mining industry, consumption, production, supply chains, along with negative consequences of coal on the environment. The country’s position of just transition is also represented.

German Just Transition: A Review of Public Policies to Assist German Coal Communities in Transition

Andrea Furnaro et al , EDF, Resources for the Future
This report gives an overview of coal production, consumption and subsequent policies in Germany. Evolution of policies from the beginning of transition processes, gradual development of inclusive policies is represented. A thorough review of key policies and legislations, along with key lessons learned is mentioned.

Inventory of Coal Resources in India

Geological Survey of India
This document states information about coal reserves in the country. Three types of coal, prime coking, medium coking, and semi coking, as well as non-coking, and inferred, proved, and indicated figures are presented for India’s coal producing states. Depth range and inventories are given.

Just Transition in India: An Inquiry into the challenges and opportunities for a post-coal future

Chandra Bhushan, Srestha Banerjee, Shruti Aggarwal , iFOREST
This book builds the case for just transition in India with a brief conceptual background of theories and definitions. India’s coal reserves, consequences of their prolonged uses, and alternatives are presented. Case study of Ramgarh is effectively presented to reflect the socio-economic profile of the region, level of dependence on coal, to identify most relevant ways to diversify livelihood sources. A prospective plan for Just transition is presented linked to the existing national policies, and international mechanisms. 

Supporting Just Transitions in India

Climate Investment Fund , Climate Investment Fund , Climate Investment Fund , 10 Sep 2021
India’s energy sector is confronting the potential for deep, and possibly rapid, structural change, particularly in how energy is supplied to meet the country’s rising demand. There are numerous drivers for an accelerated transition away from coal in India: the country’s high vulnerability to climate change; the mounting risks of stranded coal assets; the lower-thanexpected demand for coal-fired power; higher coal transportation costs; along with challenges related to land acquisition for coal mining and power generation. In addition, there is the rise of cheaper renewable energy that comes with

Mapping the Impact of Coal Mines and their Closure: A Case of Betul

Gupta R , TERI , TERI
The research has attempted to stitch together various socio-politico-economic linkages that were establishedaround coal, and consequences of its closure. The energy industry (coal mining and thermal power plant)became central to the district. Coal, that once offered prosperity, seemed eternal. That mines will close, wasknown; but even today there is little preparedness to deal with the change. The closures have had rippleeffects on the place. Sarni, the coal town, witnessed de-population, trade and businesses either slowed ormoved away. Jobs that were induced by the incomes generated from the energy industry and

The End of Coal? Planning a “Just Transition” in South Africa

Strambo C, Burton J, Atteridge A , Stockholm Environment Institute , SEI report , 27 Feb 2019
This report is based on insights from a workshop held in Tshwane in September 2018, titled “The end of coal? The risks and opportunities facing South Africa’s energy economy”, as well as on interviews conducted between 10 and 19 September 2018 in Gauteng and Mpumalanga with public officials, business associations, civil society organizations and researchers. Participants to the workshop included public officials from national government — such as the departments of Energy, Trade and Industry, Economic Development, and Environmental Affairs — as well as state-owned enterprises Eskom a

At the Crossroads: Balancing the Financial and Social Costs of Coal Transition in China

Bridle R, Kitson L, Duan H et al. , The International Institute for Sustainable Development 30 Jul 2017
The boom and eventual bust of resource-dependent regions has played out across the world many times over the last 50 years. As extractive industries go into decline due to resource exhaustion, competition from elsewhere or changing consumption of energy, demands are made for subsidies to revive the industry and maintain jobs. Concurrently, policy-makers, realizing that the decline of a resource extraction industry will cause social and economic hardship, begin the search for new industries to replace lost jobs and maintain economic development. 

Coal Transition in China: Options to Move from Coal Cap to Managed Decline under an Early Emissions Peaking Scenario

Fei T , IDDRI and Climate Strategies 30 Apr 2018
Coal is a dominant energy resource in China’s energy mix for decades. Due to the increasing domestic environment concerns (e.g. air quality, water availability) and pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China is actively looking to phase out coal from its energy system. For instance, China’s coal cap policy has already become a cornerstone of China’s low carbon transition and the implementation of its target to ensure that its carbon emission peak by around 2030. The question is now how China can begin to prepare a managed decline of coal consumption.

Coal Transitions in South Africa: Understanding the Implications of a 2oc-Compatible Coal Phase-Out Plan for South Africa

Jesse Burton, Tara Caetano, Bryce McCall , IDDRI and Climate Strategies 31 Dec 2017
South Africa is highly coal and energy intensive, and has an economy characterized by extremely high levels of inequality and poverty (with more than half of the population living in poverty. In the long run, sustainable growth and development in South Africa will depend crucially on the transition away from a coal-intensive energy system and economy. This study has examined the challenges already facing the coal sector and highlights the risks of a development strategy that continues to rely on the sector for energy security, employment, and growth.

Energy in Transition: Coal, Solar, and India’s Next Decade

Köberle AC, Shrimali G, Mittal S, Jindal A, Donovan C , Centre for Climate Finance & Investment, Imperial College Business School 30 Nov 2020
Technological innovation is driving structural change in the global energy sector. Perhaps most striking is the continuing reduction in the cost of electric power generated from solar photovoltaics (PV). According to the International Energy Agency, solar is “the new king of electricity”, due to the fact that the cost of generation has fallen well below the cost of new fossil-fuel power

Socio-Economic Impacts of Coal Transitions in India: Bottom-Up Analysis of Jobs in Coal and Coal-Consuming Industries

Dsouza S, Singhal K , National Foundation of India , National Foundation of India , 31 Oct 2021
Coal transitions in India are likely to be a messy and complicated exercise. At a conservative estimate, more than 13 million people are employed in coal mining, transport, power, sponge iron, steel, and bricks sectors. This is more than the population of at least 160 countries around the world, or the population of a country like Zimbabwe. This figure does not include those in the informal sector in coal mining, labour involved in coal imports (at the ports or transport from ports to thermal plants), indirect activities in the iron and steel sector including third party sellers, warehousing staff, iron ore minin

Implementing Coal Transitions Insights from Case Studies of Major Coal-Consuming Economies: A Summary Report of the Coal Transitions Project

Sartor O , IDDRI and Climate Strategies , IDDRI , 31 Aug 2018
The report summarises key findings from case studies in six countries (China, India, Poland, Germany, Australia and South Africa). These explore pathways to implement coal transitions . The study also draws from findings in earlier phases of the project, including global analysis of the impact of coal transitions on steam coal trade and analysis of past coal and industrial transitions in over 10 countries, as well as political economy aspects of coal.

Coal in India: Adjusting to Transition

Tongia R and Gross S , Brookings Institution , Brookings Paper 7 , 28 Feb 2019
Coal provides about half of India’s commercial primary energy supply today and is the dominant fuel for power production in India. In 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi established ambitious goals for renewable energy (RE) development, aiming to quadruple its capacity by 2022. Despite expected growth in RE, we project that coal will remain the dominant fuel for electricity generation in India through 2030 and beyond, even though its share of generation will fall. Although coal will continue to dominate power supply, the coal industry in India faces significant challenges and upcoming change.

Coal Transition in India: Assessing India’s Energy Transition Options

Vishwanathan SS, Garg A, Tiwari V , IDDRI and Climate Strategies , IDDRI Report , 31 May 2018
Coal meets 30% of the world’s energy needs and generates 41.1% of world’s electricity (WCA, 2016). India is currently the third largest power producer using coal and third largest coal importer in the world. The Indian population is characterized by low levels of consumption of modern energy (880 KWh/capita/year) by international standards. Nevertheless sustaining one of the fastest GDP growth rates in the world currently at above 7% per annum, India is well on track to meeting and may be surpassing its NDC Paris commitments for 33-35% reduction in GHG intensity of its GDP during 2005-2030 (around 25%

India’s Coal Transition: A Market Case for Decarbonisation

Vivan Sharansamir Saran , Observer Research Foundation , ORF Issue Brief No. 505: 1-19p , 31 Oct 2021
There are calls for India to declare a net-zero year and offset its carbon emissions by various processes of absorption and removal of greenhouse gases. For India, such calls are irrational; despite international pressure, it has avoided making pledges or setting hard targets beyond its commitments at the Paris climate conference in 2015. This brief argues that “net zero” is not possible with India’s current levels of reliance on coal. Its shift away from this fuel will depend largely on the quantum of additional money and resources that can be invested into alternative energy. However, as globa

Knowledge Resource - Newsletters


TERI 31 Mar 2024
The 5th issue of the Just Transition newsletter, Vichaar-Vimarsh is on the theme "Repurposing Coal Assets for a Sustainable Transition" and brings together voices from industry and academia on the prudence of a just transition strategy that considers the repurposing of coal assets for the benefit of the local community.


TERI 30 Sep 2023
The fourth issue of the Just Transition newsletter by TERI has the theme : Enhancing stakeholder engagement for a just energy transition. Through this issue we have aimed to understand and highlight the specific role that each stakeholder - government bodies, coal officials, media etc -can play in bringing about a just and fair energy transition. 

Vichar-Vimarsh Just Transition Newsletter : Diversification of Economic Choices in the coal belt

TERI 29 Mar 2023
The 3rd bi-annual newsletter, Vichaar-Vimarsh has placed special emphasis on economic diversification in the coal belt and promoting resilient future. This newsletter that attempted to capture varied perspectives, has created a space for a knowledge dialogue among researchers, practitioners, thinkers and other actors from State, industry, academia and civil society


TERI Issue No. 02- EFD , 26 Sep 2022
The second Issue of the bi-annual newsletter addresses the key theme “Transitioning fromCoal and Resetting Priorities” and attempts to build a narrative around Just Transition throughperspectives shared by thought leaders, researchers and student interns.


TERI Issue No. 01-EFD , 30 Apr 2022
This bi-annual newsletter aims at capturing voices on just transition perspectives and is anattempt to reach out to stakeholders, thought leaders, researchers, academics, civil societyand citizenry to make it a part of mainstream discourse and shape future choices

Knowledge Resource - Videos

Reimagining Energy Leadership: Achieving Our SDGs Through a Human-Centric Energy Transition

RMI , 22 Jan 2022
Empowering energy professionals to be leaders of clean energy economies in the Global south.

How coal mining is displacing millions

DW Planet A , 23 Apr 2021
Everybody loves to hate coal. But are things really changing on the ground? Follow me into the gritty heartland of the Indian coal belt to meet indigenous communities who are, arguably, facing the direst impact of our dirty coal habit.

क्या चाहते हैं कोयला खदानों के पास रहने वाले [The true costs of coal mining in India]

DWHindi , 01 Aug 2021
बिजली के लिए कोयले की खदानों पर काफी निर्भरता है. साथ ही बहस भी है कि विकास जरूरी है या पर्यावरण.इसी सवाल को लेकर हम मध्य भारत के एक गांव में पहुंचे जो खदानों के आसपास बसा है.

What are 'just transitions' for people and environment affected by mining in India?

Mongabay India , 20 Jul 2020
India’s mineral sector is diverse. From sand to atomic minerals and from coal to limestone, the industry involves the production of over 85 minerals every year, worth trillions of rupees. However, mining disturbs ecosystems and vulnerable communities.

A coal mining site is being restored and reclaimed in Jharkhand

Mongabay India , 01 Apr 2021
The Piparwar opencast coal mining project spread over 1,120 hectares stopped mining operations in 2020 after about 30 years of operations.

A just transition: The way forward for coal communities

Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Washington, DC , 13 Mar 2017
From renewable energy to nanotechnology to industrial heritage tourism- this short video highlights how some former coal regions have transformed themselves in preparation for life after coal. 


THE WHY , 29 Oct 2012
In the Jaintia Hills of northeast India, a young boy descends everyday into the 'rathole' coalmines. He works in these hard and dangerous conditions, so he can support his family. But in the dark he dreams of digging to the 'other end of the world'. He cherishes the hope of a better life. Even the darkest tunnel is no limit to the boy's imagination and courage. But are the inequities of the world too vast for the boy's hope to become reality? 

From Coal to Renewables: the Energy Transition in Emerging Markets

Accenture , 04 Nov 2021
COP26 represents the world’s last best chance to limit global warming to 1.5°c, to turn the Paris commitments into action and to help build a sustainable future for all

Goodbye coal, hello clean: Asia's energy transition

Global Wind Energy Council , 06 Aug 2021

Energy in Transition: Coal, Solar, and India’s Next Decade

Imperial College Business School's , 13 Dec 2020
Imperial College Business School's Centre for Climate Finance & Investment present their new research on energy transition scenarios and financial risks in the world’s fifth-largest economy. Imperial College Business School inspires the best minds to become future business leaders. As part of Imperial College London, a global leader in science and technology, we drive business advantage through the fusion of business and technology and an entrepreneurial mindse

The political economy of coal and its implications for clean energy transitions

United Nations - Climate Change COP 26 , 10 Nov 2021
Stiftung Mercator Foundation, University of Potsdam Based on lessons from countries phasing out coal, established coal users, countries phasing in coal, and coal exporters, this session will explore entry points to design politically feasible, climate compatible, and socially fair coal phase-out policies across a variety of contexts. Speakers: Policy makers, representatives from the private sector, unions, or the civil society from the countries relevant to the global coal phase-out discussion, as well as researchers and practitioners from international organizations| 

Breakthrough in renewable energy

VPRO Backlight , 04 May 2016
It’s not in the papers but a silent revolution is moving across the world. Renewable energy is becoming cheaper than from fossil fuels. It means that progressively the choice for wind and solar energy is no longer an ethical one but an economic one. And this will speed up the transfer to renewable energy. In countries like Brazil, Australia, Chile and parts of the United States people consider renewable energy because of financial reasons. The price of solar and wind energy will continue to drop and in more countries renewable energy will occur. A surprising newcomer on the market is Morocco, where the gove

Coal Curse: A film on the political economy of coal in India

Greenpeace India , 11 Sep 2013
Coal Curse, a film by Paranjoy Guha Thakurta, supported by Greenpeace, takes you on a journey to the land of dirty coal and the trials and tribulations of the people working in the coal mines. The documentary explores the political economy of coal in contemporary India with the situation in Singrauli as a case study. It highlights the scandal, popularly called Coalgate, and the consequences of coal mining in the Singrauli region in central India. It raises questions as to whether extraction of coal is the best answer to secure India's energy needs. 

Nation In Transition Short Film, Audience FEEDBACK from Sept. 2021 DOC SHORTS Film Festival.

Wildsound Festival , 11 Sep 2021
Building on the success of its award-winning debut film in the Current Revolution series, American Resilience Project presents Nation in Transition, an exploration of the energy transition in the Southwest, where power and water systems are increasingly stressed due to more frequent extreme heat and drought, and where increasing numbers of coal-fired power plants are closing due to market forces. Within the wider context of our global energy transition, the film highlights the coal-to-renewables transition on the Navajo Nation and across northern Arizona through the stories of workers, their families and communit

From coal to wind: a renewable energy story

E.ON Energy UK , 19 Aug 2019
This film shows how the renewable energy transition from coal to wind power has been a reality for a family-run wind farm in Wales that we buy renewable energy from.