Knowledge Resource

Unheard and Unseen: Mining Women in British India

Urvi Khaitan , Social History Society, UK
The lives of mining women in colonial India were marked by multiple marginalizations: as subjects, Adivasi or lower caste women, illiterate and extremely underpaid labourers working in isolated rural areas, and engaging in a profession that literally made them invisible by putting them underground. In this sense, they are women beneath the surface, both literally and figuratively. The nature of mining women's participation in coal mining in colonial India is described in this article.