Knowledge Resource - Reports


Apoorva Singh, Arpita Victor , TERI Press 11 Sep 2023
Coal continues to remain the mainstay of India’s energy portfolio mix. The climate change considerations and the increasing competitiveness of cleaner sources of energy are likely to increase the momentum of the transition towards non-fossil fuel-based sources. According to an estimate, this move would impact approximately 13 million people who are dependent on coal either directly or indirectly for a livelihood. Women form only 6.7% of the coal workforce according to figures from Coal India Limited (CIL), but this number only includes women who have regular employment with the company. Approximately

From coal to renewables in Mpumalanga

This report is based on a distinctive, previously unreleased, confidential set of employee data for coal mines and Eskom that was provided by Eskom and the Mining Quality Authority (MQA). The supplied data sets link gender, educational attainment, and years of service, allowing analysis of skill sets and gender balance in the coal industry as well as evaluation of the potential for talent transfer to the renewable energy sector.

Gender equality must be a central component of a just transition: Submission to the UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights — GI-ESCR

The Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
In addition to highlighting some of the critical factors that must be taken into account when switching from fossil fuels to renewable energy, this paper focuses on the connections between gender, poverty, and sustainable energy and examines how these connections affect gender equality in particular.

Five R’s: A cross-sectoral landscape of Just Transition in India

Chandra Bhushan and Srestha Banerjee , iFOREST
In India, a just transition will necessitate policy and planning for five key elements: restructuring of the economy and industries; repurposing of land and infrastructure; reskilling existing and training new workers; revenue substitution and investments in just transition; and responsible social and environmental practises. To ensure targeted interventions and just socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, all of these must be considered appropriately in a sectoral and region-specific manner.

Beyond coal: Just transition in india’s coal districts

Bottom-up engagement and a coalition of various stakeholders, including policymakers, public representatives, administrators, industry, unions, and the local community, will be required for just transition planning. A top-down approach is unlikely to be successful. A transition of this magnitude will necessitate the cooperation of all levels of government—the federal, state, and local—in order to develop and implement Just Transition policies and plans, as well as mobilise financial resources.

Gender, labour and a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all

Rishabh Kumar Dhir , ILO
A global shift to a low-carbon and sustainable economy presents several opportunities for achieving gender equality in the workplace, which is critical for achieving the SDGs and the Paris Agreement. This publication demonstrates how a just transition combined with inclusive climate action can play a significant role in changing gender norms and advancing gender equality, all while ensuring women have the opportunity to participate as actors in combating climate change, building a green economy, and creating green jobs.

DISCUSSION PAPER Gender Equality & Just Transition

When we speak of a just transition away from fossil fuels, we must challenge new industries to transition away from prevailing power structures and a sexually disaggregated labour force, as well as the role of women's unpaid care work, particularly in developing countries, and women's informal work, both of which subsidise our current economic systems and are financially unrecognised or undervalued. Gender Just Solutions are bottom-up initiatives that promote equal access to benefits, do not burden women, involve multiple benefits, and centre local decision making and the role of women within it.

Defining and Framing Just transition for india

Srestha Banerjee , iFOREST
This discussion paper seeks to define and frame just transition in the context of India. To that end, the paper examines some of the key definitions and conceptual frameworks of just transition, as well as policy frameworks developed by some of the major fossil fuel-dependent countries. Based on the review, and taking into account the socioeconomic and environmental complexities of India's fossil fuel regions, the employees, and the political economy backdrop, the paper proposes how a just transition can be defined, as well as an appropriate approach for framing it in a policy context, while also considerin

Guidelines for a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all

The International Labour Organization's (ILO) Guidelines for a Just Transition to Environmentally Sustainable Economies and Societies for All provide an important pathway for ensuring gender equality and inclusiveness in a world of work disrupted by climate change impacts and climate mitigation actions that do not include pathways for decent work outcomes. They offer a policy framework as well as a practical tool to help countries manage the transition to a low-carbon economy in a gender-transformative way. They also provide a framework for leveraging women's leadership and power as change agents in develop

Managing Coal Mine Closure: Achieving a Just Transition for All

World Bank
This brief report compiles key takeaways from the World Bank's assistance to governments, businesses, employees, and communities on the closure of coal mines over the past two decades. To develop a summary of the essential factors to take into account when planning and implementing coal mine closure initiatives, this internal experience was further strengthened by an examination of other global experiences. The World Bank is still offering assistance with coal mine closure that is supported by real-world knowledge, cutting-edge expertise, and priceless lessons that are essential for a just transition for al

Women in the coal sector: from barriers to entry to challenges in the aftermath of mine ‎closure ‎

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
The fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goal 5, "Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls," hinges on a gender-sensitive just transition policy. Women and young girls might frequently encounter higher degrees of social or personal safety difficulties, as well as educational and health disadvantages, when organisations don't have the proper plans in place. Planning for mine closure and transitions in a way that empowers and benefits everyone in the community requires the use of innovative thinking to create social value into the future.


Swati Joshi , CarbonCopy
While women are grossly underrepresented in India’s workforce, they are overrepresented in the informal sector even among coal mining labour. Instead of rehashing the process when coal is phased out, Just Transition can offer a forum to discuss gender equity within the context of the impending transition to low-carbon development. Despite having the highest stakes and being most impacted in terms of social issues, the environment, and health, women are given little consideration. Investing in the sectors essential for gender parity — health, education, and social security — is one of the i


Matthew Webb, Paola Parra , Climate Analytics
This briefing paper notes the high reliability of Japan on coal, despite global climate policies. The plans to diversify energy production sources of Japan’s government are presented, along with consequences of continuing with coal. A case is made for Japan to start considering just transition policies and processes.

Just Transition and Informal Workers in Coal Regions in India

Srestha Banerjee , iFOREST
This is a working paper taking on the widely unexplored sector of coal mining in India, the informal sector. Since transition away from coal often only brings mine workers under the purview of policies and legislations, the informal workers are abandoned along with mines post closure. Expansion on the understanding of informal workers is represented with certain categorization. The lack of data is the biggest issue for this sector, however this paper provides helpful insights to understand the issue.

When Land is Lost Do We Eat Coal?

Amnesty International India
This report presents the case studies of three states Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha with a background of legislations on coal, forest, and tribal rights. Coal India Limited, and its subsidiaries functioning is analyzed thoroughly to reflect ground reality, making the case for a just transition. International commitments are also highlighted, along with recommendations to make the most effective use of existing framework to resolve human rights violations linked to coal mining.

Assessment of Environmental Impact due to Mining Activities and its Mitigation in Coal India Limited and its Subsidiaries

CAG, India
The case of just transition is formulated on the short comings of the existing practices, along with opportunities to turn the situation around and prospective solutions. This government report mentions the procedures of environment management system, water and air pollution control measures, land management and rehabilitation practices for mine fire cases, along with performance of CIL and its subsidiaries in the country.

Covid-19 and Just Transition in India’s Coal Mining Sector

Johannes Urpelainen, Setu Pelz , Indo-German Energy Forum
The report attempts to highlight the short-comings of investing in the coal and thermal power sector in long-term scenario, while acknowledging the importance of coal in the country. The issue is represented as an opportunity for decent job creation via just transition policies and processes. It mentions how existing policies can be utilized to start the just transition process.

District wise skill gap study for the State of Jharkhand

This report gives an overview of Jharkhand’s demography, educational and training institutions, and an overall economic profile. Policies attempting to promote certain sectors are mentioned for each district given their geographical, demographic, and economic contexts. The gaps for every district are highlighted with prospective solutions.

South African Coal Sector Report

South Africa’s electricity comes from coal, also being a major exporter of coal South Africa has started process of transitioning away from coal. This report gives an informative, yet brief review of South Africa’s coal mining industry, consumption, production, supply chains, along with negative consequences of coal on the environment. The country’s position of just transition is also represented.

German Just Transition: A Review of Public Policies to Assist German Coal Communities in Transition

Andrea Furnaro et al , EDF, Resources for the Future
This report gives an overview of coal production, consumption and subsequent policies in Germany. Evolution of policies from the beginning of transition processes, gradual development of inclusive policies is represented. A thorough review of key policies and legislations, along with key lessons learned is mentioned.

Inventory of Coal Resources in India

Geological Survey of India
This document states information about coal reserves in the country. Three types of coal, prime coking, medium coking, and semi coking, as well as non-coking, and inferred, proved, and indicated figures are presented for India’s coal producing states. Depth range and inventories are given.

Just Transition in India: An Inquiry into the challenges and opportunities for a post-coal future

Chandra Bhushan, Srestha Banerjee, Shruti Aggarwal , iFOREST
This book builds the case for just transition in India with a brief conceptual background of theories and definitions. India’s coal reserves, consequences of their prolonged uses, and alternatives are presented. Case study of Ramgarh is effectively presented to reflect the socio-economic profile of the region, level of dependence on coal, to identify most relevant ways to diversify livelihood sources. A prospective plan for Just transition is presented linked to the existing national policies, and international mechanisms. 

Supporting Just Transitions in India

Climate Investment Fund , Climate Investment Fund , Climate Investment Fund , 10 Sep 2021
India’s energy sector is confronting the potential for deep, and possibly rapid, structural change, particularly in how energy is supplied to meet the country’s rising demand. There are numerous drivers for an accelerated transition away from coal in India: the country’s high vulnerability to climate change; the mounting risks of stranded coal assets; the lower-thanexpected demand for coal-fired power; higher coal transportation costs; along with challenges related to land acquisition for coal mining and power generation. In addition, there is the rise of cheaper renewable energy that comes with

Mapping the Impact of Coal Mines and their Closure: A Case of Betul

Gupta R , TERI , TERI
The research has attempted to stitch together various socio-politico-economic linkages that were establishedaround coal, and consequences of its closure. The energy industry (coal mining and thermal power plant)became central to the district. Coal, that once offered prosperity, seemed eternal. That mines will close, wasknown; but even today there is little preparedness to deal with the change. The closures have had rippleeffects on the place. Sarni, the coal town, witnessed de-population, trade and businesses either slowed ormoved away. Jobs that were induced by the incomes generated from the energy industry and

The End of Coal? Planning a “Just Transition” in South Africa

Strambo C, Burton J, Atteridge A , Stockholm Environment Institute , SEI report , 27 Feb 2019
This report is based on insights from a workshop held in Tshwane in September 2018, titled “The end of coal? The risks and opportunities facing South Africa’s energy economy”, as well as on interviews conducted between 10 and 19 September 2018 in Gauteng and Mpumalanga with public officials, business associations, civil society organizations and researchers. Participants to the workshop included public officials from national government — such as the departments of Energy, Trade and Industry, Economic Development, and Environmental Affairs — as well as state-owned enterprises Eskom a

At the Crossroads: Balancing the Financial and Social Costs of Coal Transition in China

Bridle R, Kitson L, Duan H et al. , The International Institute for Sustainable Development 30 Jul 2017
The boom and eventual bust of resource-dependent regions has played out across the world many times over the last 50 years. As extractive industries go into decline due to resource exhaustion, competition from elsewhere or changing consumption of energy, demands are made for subsidies to revive the industry and maintain jobs. Concurrently, policy-makers, realizing that the decline of a resource extraction industry will cause social and economic hardship, begin the search for new industries to replace lost jobs and maintain economic development. 

Coal Transition in China: Options to Move from Coal Cap to Managed Decline under an Early Emissions Peaking Scenario

Fei T , IDDRI and Climate Strategies 30 Apr 2018
Coal is a dominant energy resource in China’s energy mix for decades. Due to the increasing domestic environment concerns (e.g. air quality, water availability) and pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China is actively looking to phase out coal from its energy system. For instance, China’s coal cap policy has already become a cornerstone of China’s low carbon transition and the implementation of its target to ensure that its carbon emission peak by around 2030. The question is now how China can begin to prepare a managed decline of coal consumption.

Coal Transitions in South Africa: Understanding the Implications of a 2oc-Compatible Coal Phase-Out Plan for South Africa

Jesse Burton, Tara Caetano, Bryce McCall , IDDRI and Climate Strategies 31 Dec 2017
South Africa is highly coal and energy intensive, and has an economy characterized by extremely high levels of inequality and poverty (with more than half of the population living in poverty. In the long run, sustainable growth and development in South Africa will depend crucially on the transition away from a coal-intensive energy system and economy. This study has examined the challenges already facing the coal sector and highlights the risks of a development strategy that continues to rely on the sector for energy security, employment, and growth.

Energy in Transition: Coal, Solar, and India’s Next Decade

Köberle AC, Shrimali G, Mittal S, Jindal A, Donovan C , Centre for Climate Finance & Investment, Imperial College Business School 30 Nov 2020
Technological innovation is driving structural change in the global energy sector. Perhaps most striking is the continuing reduction in the cost of electric power generated from solar photovoltaics (PV). According to the International Energy Agency, solar is “the new king of electricity”, due to the fact that the cost of generation has fallen well below the cost of new fossil-fuel power

Socio-Economic Impacts of Coal Transitions in India: Bottom-Up Analysis of Jobs in Coal and Coal-Consuming Industries

Dsouza S, Singhal K , National Foundation of India , National Foundation of India , 31 Oct 2021
Coal transitions in India are likely to be a messy and complicated exercise. At a conservative estimate, more than 13 million people are employed in coal mining, transport, power, sponge iron, steel, and bricks sectors. This is more than the population of at least 160 countries around the world, or the population of a country like Zimbabwe. This figure does not include those in the informal sector in coal mining, labour involved in coal imports (at the ports or transport from ports to thermal plants), indirect activities in the iron and steel sector including third party sellers, warehousing staff, iron ore minin

Implementing Coal Transitions Insights from Case Studies of Major Coal-Consuming Economies: A Summary Report of the Coal Transitions Project

Sartor O , IDDRI and Climate Strategies , IDDRI , 31 Aug 2018
The report summarises key findings from case studies in six countries (China, India, Poland, Germany, Australia and South Africa). These explore pathways to implement coal transitions . The study also draws from findings in earlier phases of the project, including global analysis of the impact of coal transitions on steam coal trade and analysis of past coal and industrial transitions in over 10 countries, as well as political economy aspects of coal.

Coal in India: Adjusting to Transition

Tongia R and Gross S , Brookings Institution , Brookings Paper 7 , 28 Feb 2019
Coal provides about half of India’s commercial primary energy supply today and is the dominant fuel for power production in India. In 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi established ambitious goals for renewable energy (RE) development, aiming to quadruple its capacity by 2022. Despite expected growth in RE, we project that coal will remain the dominant fuel for electricity generation in India through 2030 and beyond, even though its share of generation will fall. Although coal will continue to dominate power supply, the coal industry in India faces significant challenges and upcoming change.

Coal Transition in India: Assessing India’s Energy Transition Options

Vishwanathan SS, Garg A, Tiwari V , IDDRI and Climate Strategies , IDDRI Report , 31 May 2018
Coal meets 30% of the world’s energy needs and generates 41.1% of world’s electricity (WCA, 2016). India is currently the third largest power producer using coal and third largest coal importer in the world. The Indian population is characterized by low levels of consumption of modern energy (880 KWh/capita/year) by international standards. Nevertheless sustaining one of the fastest GDP growth rates in the world currently at above 7% per annum, India is well on track to meeting and may be surpassing its NDC Paris commitments for 33-35% reduction in GHG intensity of its GDP during 2005-2030 (around 25%

India’s Coal Transition: A Market Case for Decarbonisation

Vivan Sharansamir Saran , Observer Research Foundation , ORF Issue Brief No. 505: 1-19p , 31 Oct 2021
There are calls for India to declare a net-zero year and offset its carbon emissions by various processes of absorption and removal of greenhouse gases. For India, such calls are irrational; despite international pressure, it has avoided making pledges or setting hard targets beyond its commitments at the Paris climate conference in 2015. This brief argues that “net zero” is not possible with India’s current levels of reliance on coal. Its shift away from this fuel will depend largely on the quantum of additional money and resources that can be invested into alternative energy. However, as globa

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