|In one of the most significant mining locations in the Indian state of Odisha, this study evaluates the costs of coal mining on agricultural and human health. The study is based on household-level data obtained from two control (unpolluted) villages in western Odisha's Ib Valley region and four mining-related (polluted) villages. The findings show that the mining villages' average yield per acre is considerably lower than that of the control villages. Males are less prone than females to experience respiratory disease. Furthermore, respiratory diseases are less common in households with higher literacy rates. Compared to residents in the control villages, residents of the mining villages have higher exposure to respiratory illnesses.